Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Communication in Business Target Market and Convincing

Question: Describe about the Communication in Business for Target Market and Convincing. Answer: Introduction A business organization establishes apt communication plans to reach to its target market and convince them in the case of buying any particular product. A communication plan is therefore considered to be an art of making a firm relationship with the target audience to meet the profit margin with the help of advertisements, e-mails and public relations (Argenti, 2015). In the current year, Toyota Motor group has decided to launch a handful of new cars such as HiLux, C-HR, for which the company needs to set communication plans befitting their profit goal. The purpose of the following report is to make a suitable business plan for the Toyota motor group who are currently going to launch an innovative car. Before make the communication scheme, the assignment has evaluated some key aspects to determine an apt plan for promotions such as the internal and external stakeholders, scopes and objectives of the communication scheme. Additionally, the report has identified formal and informal channels of communication for Toyota and their certain advantages and disadvantages. The entire assignment has been conducted from a head of communication that has been requested to establish a report outlining the structure of a proposed plan for promotion. Hence, the report is going to give a commentary on the evaluation of the effectiveness of the communication scheme. The stakeholders of Toyota Motor group As per Guffey Loewy (2012), stakeholders play potential roles regarding determining the business growth of a particular organization. An automobile company like Toyota determines the demands based on the disposable income, product innovation and prices of vehicle and fuel. In the current business scenario, the automobile industry is suffering from the rising price value of steel and plastics those are the main instigators behind the high price value of cars and other vehicle devices (Cavusgil et al., 2014). Similarly like other leading automobile enterprises, Toyota motors have been another victim of the sudden revenue fall of about 15.4% in the year 2009. Internal stakeholders of Toyota For Toyota, employees are probably the most significant aspect as stakeholders. The company believes that their current success in the automobile market majorly relies on the quality performance of the employees. Hence, the company prefers to provide on development job system and individual training courses like management development, technical development for the working employees which help the staffs to find better opportunities in future (www.toyota.com.au, 2016). Additionally, the company provides satisfactory salary and job security to their employees. However, the company only gives placements to those candidates who have growth potentials. Business partners and shareholders are probably the second most significant stakeholders of Toyota Motors as, without the help of massive capital investment, the company could not have succeeded. Toyota's business partners include suppliers and dealers, and the company prefers to keep a firm relationship with them as a consequent to which the trading partners have developed certain guidelines for purchasing. However, it is a fortunate fact that suppliers' power for the company is weak as the company uses various metals for the production. In the year 2000, the company has gone through a recession which the company tactfully handled with the support of their investors (toyota-industries.com, 2016). Shareholders of Toyota motors are accountable to hold the stability of the business operations and supports to earn a sustainable growth by advancing the virtuous circle. On the other hand, the Toyota motor corporation is another pivotal stakeholder for Toyota as they hold the entire control of all the regional franchises of the company. The company strongly depends on the communities as Toyota has established several initiative programs such as education facility for safe driving courses under the initiative of Go Safely (toyota-industries.com, 2016). External stakeholders of Toyota External stakeholders of Toyota are majorly dominated by the local as well as national communities around the world. For instance, community sponsorship and corporate sponsorships like racing series sponsored by Toyota, Emirates team affect the communities and influence upon their buying preference. Toyota motors give a significant importance to its customers, and the company believes that demands of the customers should be considered first (Sunder, 2016). To reach customer satisfaction, the company gives stress upon upgrading the qualities of their product, sales, and service. According to the Toyota management, work quality is the key to winning customer satisfaction. Following this fundamental concept, the company prefers to make customization and produce cars with different price range. However, the government on the other side is a dominating stakeholder for Toyota as the company is bound to abide regulations and particular enforcement legislation implemented by the government. It is unfortunate a little that Toyota is currently facing issues for producing vehicles which have high MPG. As a dire consequence, the enterprise is continuously lobbying with the present Congress and Toyota now is attempting hard to get back customer trust which they have supposedly lost due to having lobbying issues (Choi Chung, 2012). Furthermore, Toyota considers social media as valuable external stakeholders as they provide latest and reliable information about the cars. However, both local and international NGOs and SRI (Sustainable Responsible Investment) are potential stakeholders for Toyota Motors as the company relies upon their positive rating regarding the resistance power of the manufactured cars. Scopes and aims of the communication plan The plan Before making a firm communication plan, it is essential to find out appropriate target market for the upcoming product (Coombs, 2014). Toyota Motors new crossover vehicle C-HR has been decided to make an arrival in early 2017. The car has been designed to lure the elite section of the society and distinctly those who possess an immense passion for the car. The sole purpose of Toyota Motors is to attract consumers by providing a satisfying experience of ownership. Additionally, they maintain the objective to dominate the market with the maximum supply of car. As opined by Mishra, Boynton Mishra (2014), a communication plan should accompany the core objectives of a company. C-HR is designed as a full sized sports utility vehicle (SUV) which is being considered to give a proper shape to the future of the sport or suburban utility vehicle. Fortunately, with the launch of C-HR, the company will find opportunities for sponsoring car racing events successfully. Considering all these aspects a relevant communication plan for the company will be to communicate through advertising, organizing public events and conducting personal selling for the external stakeholders. In the case of an advertisement, the company should consider online social Medias like Facebook, Twitter, and Google plus for the purpose of promotion (Russell Neuman et al., 2014). On the other hand, through organizing public events, the company can increase public awareness regarding the importance of sustainability and the potentiality of the new brand in shaping opportunities for small SUVS (Berger Iyengar, 2013). However, the company should not forget about informing about the entire communication plan to the existing employees with the help of e-mails and notice board. The communication plan should be sent to the departments of sales and marketing and finance initially and in this case the responsible persons will be the individual team leaders and field managers of the enterprise (Eyre, 2016). Information Stakeholder to provide information Responsible authority Time Information on companys vision regarding the launch Shareholders, employees, and suppliers CEO or the president First week Information about the probable budget Department of Finance Chief financial officer Second week Information on customer survey, present market survey report Supervisors of the manufacturing and logistics department Field managers Second and third week Information on promotional details Marketing department Chief executive of marketing Fourth week Particulars of the car Audience Media channels From the second month Information about the design, resistance power and durability of the car Overall audience, SRI Media channels, social networking sites From the second month Figure 1: Information plan for the stakeholders (Source: As created by the author) Scope and aims The purpose and objective of the communication plan for the external stakeholders will be therefore to invite customers between the age of 18 to 35 who prefers to a cost-efficient vehicle with reliable durability, safety, and superior quality. Alongside, the communication plan has possible chances to increase the brand image of Toyota Motors in countries like Australia and the USA. Most importantly, if the communication runs smooth on the internet and supposed public events will turn successful, then it can be expected that the growth of the confidence level of the customers and market share will maximize. If the plan runs successfully, then it would probably increase the level of trust of the customers those wishes to make a career in the sport of car racing. The plan has the potentiality to broaden the scope of the company in case of sponsoring car racing competitions. With the help of the program, Toyota can successfully gain individual opinions from the internal stakeholders, and it will contribute to assessing possible risk regarding the launch. Advantages and disadvantages of the formal and informal channels for communication of Toyota Communication channels for promotion are required to build an efficient and strong relationship with the target market and other external stakeholders for a company (DeFleur DeFleur, 2016). As per the designed communication plan, most of Toyota Motors communication relies upon the informal communication style as most of the promotional activities will supposedly be conducted through online social media. However, the communication plan includes promotion through organizing multiple public events; therefore there are chances for formal communication with the audiences. Formal channels of Toyota and their advantages and disadvantages Toyota motors prefer to maintain their formal communication with their employee through newsletters, notice board, memoranda and business plans. Even the proposed communication plan itself will work as a channel of official communication for the company. With the help of these official communication channels, the company has successfully established an effective communication process in which employees of the company share their opinions and information. The ability of Toyota motors in case of competing with rival organizations like Honda and Kia relies on the communication skills of their employees, though newsletter; memorandums and notice board are not enough for acquiring individual opinions from the existing workers. The practice of sharing information through these channels matches with the top down communication pattern. On the side of advantage where this kind of communication enables an equal flow of information, such communication process increases the risk of losing critical details or any relevant information about a project on the side of disadvantage (Eisenberg, E. M., Goodall Jr Trethewey, 2013). It would help if Toyota will increase the number of review meetings with the existing workers and give importance to the scheduled conversations. However, both international and domestic event management organizations like Event Planet and automobile dealers will work as the formal channels for Toyota motors for the promotional activities in case of launching the new car (Martin Nakayama, 2013). Alongside, Toyota considers sending e-mails to their core customers at the time of launching any new car in the market. Sending electronic mails to the individual core customers is beneficial as this process enables a firm and loyal relationship with the target audience. On the other hand, communication through public events provides the opportunities for face to face interaction with the audience (Schultz, Castell Morsing, 2013). However, in the case of informing or alluring customers through public events is not worth equivalent to the process of sending e-mails to the core ones. Hence, the disadvantage of using e-mails through this process is the company can only convince conveniently to a certain number of people and not every in dividual (McCombs, 2013). Informal channels of Toyota and their advantages and disadvantages Toyota uses newsletters, e-mails, notice board, text messages and memos in forms of informal communication with its employees. If the company uses online social Medias like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube as the informal channels of communication, then it will work in favor for the company. In the current scenario, online social Medias and websites are viewed by a maximum number of audience and specifically sports lovers prefer to keep an eye on the online video channels like YouTube and news channels to get current updates about any news of car launch (Johnson, 2013). Informal channels like online social media and news channels will give the advantage to earn the attention of the international audience which will raise the revenue margin and help to gain international sponsorship for car racing. However, on the contrary, informal communication channels may not prove successful for those people who are not frequent with the online social Medias. Therefore, instead of communicating through these channels, Toyota should give equal importance in promoting through local and international newspapers. Nonetheless, as opined by Adams, Harf Ford (2014), the theory of setting agenda is the process of covering particular news accurately and frequently to enhance its volume of importance. Toyota should keep in mind that the theory of Agenda setting will help to increase the level of importance regarding the new launch in the minds of the audience. Nevertheless, for the employees and other internal stakeholders, Toyota prefers to have communication through emails and telephonic conversation in the form of informal communication. Telephonic conversations and text messages help internal stakeholders to express and share the individual point of views with the management (Jindal, Laveena Aggarwal, 2015). Commentary for critically evaluating the effectiveness of the communication plan According to the action schedule of the communication plan, the company will spend a pretty amount of budget for broadcasting over the internet, social media channels and newspaper to have firm communication with the external stakeholders. The communication plan has strongly considered the theory of Agenda-setting, following which the action plan of the communication schedule involves a thorough repetition of the entire advertisement program for near about two months. The plan seems more to focus on making close communication with the external stakeholders and little less upon the internal ones. However, there should a planned schedule through which it would be easy to understand whether the plan has succeeded or not. Action Time Survey through online voting and rating One month Market survey through random selection Two month Table 2: Survey plan (Source: As created by the author) Conclusion From the above-considered report, it can be deduced that the communication plan for the launch of C-HR of Toyota has been prepared considering the necessity to share relevant information for both the internal and external stakeholders. The assignment indicates that formal channels of communication as well as informal channels of communication are required for the considered purpose. As per the proposed communication plan, employees and business partners are the prime internal stakeholders for Toyota for whom the company should make use of communication channels like e-mails, newsletters, phone calls and schedule meetings. On the other side, for chief external stakeholders like customers, media, government and local communities, Toyota should mainly depend upon online and offline social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, news and TV channels. Additionally public events, the press release will help actively in making a convenient communication bond. References Adams, A., Harf, A., Ford, R. (2014). Agenda Setting Theory: A Critique of Maxwell McCombs Donald Shaws Theory In Em Griffins A First Look at Communication Theory.Meta-communicate,4(1). Argenti, P. A. (2015).Corporate communication. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Berger, J., Iyengar, R. (2013). Communication channels and word of mouth: How the medium shapes the message.Journal of Consumer Research,40(3), 567-579. Cavusgil, S. T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J. R., Rammal, H. G., Rose, E. L. (2014).International business. Pearson Australia. Choi, J., Chung, W. (2012). Analysis of the Interactive Relationship Between Apology and Product Involvement in Crisis Communication: Study on the Toyota Recall Crisis.Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 1050651912458923. Coombs, W. T. (2014).Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Sage Publications. DeFleur, M. L., DeFleur, M. H. (2016).Mass communication theories: Explaining origins, processes, and effects. Routledge. Eisenberg, E. M., Goodall Jr, H. L., Trethewey, A. (2013).Organizational communication: Balancing creativity and constraint. Macmillan Higher Education. Eyre, E. C. (2016).Business Communication: Made Simple. Elsevier. Guffey, M. E., Loewy, D. (2012).Essentials of business communication. Cengage Learning. Jindal, S., Laveena, L., Aggarwal, A. (2015). A Comparitive Study Of Crisis Management-Toyota V/S General Motors.Scholedge International Journal of Management Development ISSN 2394-3378,2(6), 1-12. Johnson, T. J. (2013).Agenda setting in a 2.0 world: New agendas in communication. Routledge. Martin, J. N., Nakayama, T. K. (2013).Experiencing intercultural communication. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. McCombs, M. (2013).Setting the agenda: The mass media and public opinion. John Wiley Sons. Mishra, K., Boynton, L., Mishra, A. (2014). Driving Employee Engagement The Expanded Role of Internal Communications.International Journal of Business Communication,51(2), 183-202. Russell Neuman, W., Guggenheim, L., Mo Jang, S., Bae, S. Y. (2014). The dynamics of public attention: Agendaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ setting theory meets big data.Journal of Communication,64(2), 193-214. Schultz, F., Castell, I., Morsing, M. (2013). The construction of corporate social responsibility in network societies: A communication view.Journal of business ethics,115(4), 681-692. Sunder M, V. (2016). Lean six sigma project managementa stakeholder management perspective.The TQM Journal,28(1), 132-150. Toyota About The Company. (2016).Toyota Australia. Retrieved 16 September 2016, from https://www.toyota.com.au/toyota/company toyota-industries.com. (2016).toyota-industries.com. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from https://www.toyota-industries.com/csr/library/pdf2006/24-25.pdf

Monday, December 2, 2019

Valley Archive Collections

The modern world as well as the future needs historical accounts in order to be aware of how events have changed with time. There are a number of ways of learning about the past. However, archives provide very important resources that give an account of the past. It is therefore crucial for communities to be informed about the importance of valuing and keeping their archives containing precious historical documents.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Valley Archive Collections specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The archives will protect useful documents, diaries, catalogues, reference books, photographs, music, films, minutes, letters, land records, newspapers, censuses and correspondence which will be invaluable for future generations. The essay discuses the power and potential of the Valley Archive collections, a project which happens to be part of the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virgini a. The modern world has witnessed tremendous information, communication and technological advancements. Virtually all sectors in the society have made efforts to integrate these significant developments. Historians have not been left behind as far as keeping important records that gives an account of the past is concerned. The Valley of the Shadow is a digital archive of very crucial sources of information about the people of Augusta County, Virginia, and Franklin County, Pennsylvania, during the period of the American Civil War between 1859 and 1870. Most archives contain very limited documentation of the past which makes them look like digital books. However, the Valley of the Shadow archive is more like a large digital library that provides an account of thousands of original documents that paints a clear picture of how men and women of Augusta and Franklin counties lived during the Civil War in America. Despite its huge size, the Valley Archive Project is well structured and eas y to use. It contains thousands of census and government records which include maps and images, land and church records, official statistics, and tax records, letters and diaries, newspapers and speeches, and they all provide very detailed information about the day to day activities of people in the two counties during the time of the war. The three major sections into which the archive is divided make it easier to browse and access preferred information. The Eve of the War (1859-1861), The War Years (spring 1861-spring 1865), and The Aftermath (1865-1870) are the three sections of the Valley Archive. The click of a mouse on each section of interest enables one to take a tour into this virtual library. As one goes deeper into the library, one gets access to original documentation of most sectors of the society in the two counties at the time of the Civil War. Archives, therefore, are invaluable sources of historical accounts of any given society.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With the nature of the Valley Archive Project, it is evident that historical accounts can be integrated with scientific and technological advancements that make it easier for historians to access various accounts of the past. This ease of accessing historical information helps researchers in conducting investigations through the analysis of original documentations in their digital form. We can conclude, therefore, that without archives, there is no history. Work Cited University of Virginia (2009). The Valley of the Shadow. Retrieved from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/VoS/choosepart.html This essay on Valley Archive Collections was written and submitted by user Lillie Chase to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Highschool Education and General Idea Essay

Highschool Education and General Idea Essay Highschool: Education and General Idea Essay High school is crazy but so am I. I’ve got a lot of qualities and a general idea of high school plus some education goals for the year that I hope I am able to achieve. First of all, I have a lot of good and bad personal qualities. Some good ones are that im a great learner and I always have been since I was little. I tend to catch on to things really quickly so that helps me to do really well in all of my classes. Some bad qualities that I have are that I can’t really pay attention in class to well I, im a really bad test taker and a lot of the time I don’t do homework when I need to. Next, I have set a couple of education goals for myself this year so I will be able to succeed. This year in school I am striving to do well so that im able to go to the college that I want to go to when I finish high school. School is really important for you to be able to go somewhere in life, school is a great place to learn people skills and the other life lessons. Finally, my outlook on high school is that it is very important for us to attend every day and actually learn something so that you wont have to live in your parent’s basement when you finish school. School isn’t just here to torcher you everyday with boring lessons it here to help us achieve educational goals so we can succeed in something. School is going to be fun yet crazy at the same time it will be a big learning experience! I have tones of good qualities and some bad, a general idea of high school is

Saturday, November 23, 2019

A Band Of Brothers essays

A Band Of Brothers essays This book takes the reader on a great journey, one filled with excitement and sadness. The reader is a rifleman in Easy Company, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, U.S. Army, the greatest rifle company in the world. It all starts at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, then escalates to D-Day (Their first combat jump), and then to Hitlers Eagles Nest at Berchtesgaden. Basic Training at Fort Toccoa was the toughest BT in the Armed Forces. At Toccoa, they took in baby-faced recruits and turned them into lean, mean killing machines. Each of the 140 men and 7 officers who had come to Ft. Toccoa had either been an athlete or a hunter in high school. Toccoa was so tough that many of the OFFICERS didnt make it through there. The instructors in Georgia were very tough on these men. They knew that they had to be in supreme physical condition, or else they would never survive. To get these men in top physical condition, the drill sergeants ran the men up and down a hill that they called Currahee (Indian for We stand alone.) This hill was 3 miles up and 3 miles back. The men ran this hill at least once a day, if not twice. By the time the men shipped out of Georgia 8 weeks later, they were in the best fighting shape of their lives. On the night of June 6, 1944, the men from Easy Company loaded up into 8 c-47 carrier planes. Flying over Normandy, many planes were hit and began to go down, so men had to jump from 250 feet while going 150 miles an hour. When they actually hit the ground, many of the men could not find their gear and had to sometimes make do with just a field knife. As the men landed, (they were scattered about 5 miles apart, as the planes had been blown off course by the Anti-Aircraft fire.) they tried to group together in bands and make their way to the rallying point. Many men were killed, because they would accidentally walk right into a German ma ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Pure Country and Stereotype Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Pure Country and Stereotype - Movie Review Example Stereotype denotes simplified and fixed image of all members of a culture or group. Stereotypes are often based on race, religion, ethnicity, age, gender, and national origins (Stereotypes 2006). In Pure Country, Dusty is the stereotypical country musician-with a big hanging beard and ponytail. In today's modern thinking, mentioning the word country musician would paint a picture of a man with his long hair tied in ponytail and big beard clutching a stringed instrument. This stereotype emerged from the image of popular country musicians like Willie Nelson. This depiction of country musician has a very interesting history. Country music is an integration of the music types in the Southern America including traditional music, Gospel music, Celtic music, blues, and old time music (Peterson 1999). Before the term "country music" is coined and is used to denote to this amalgam, country music is more popularly known as hillbilly music because of its Southern American origin (Peterson 1999). Hillbilly became derogatory as it denotes the stereotypical dwellers of the rural and mountainous areas of southern Appalachia who are described as "free and untrammeled white citizen of Alabama, who lives in the hills, has no means to speak of, dresses as he can, talks as he pleases, drinks whiskey when he gets it, and fires off his revolver as the fancy takes him" (Harkins 1900). Thus, a country musician being an unprofessional one is the typical hillbilly who thrives in the mountain where shaves and barber shops are unpopular. On the other hand, the story of Pure Country is reflects the romance that viewers would want to get from a love story. The movie revolves on the typical plot that the life of a celebrity is empty without finding true love. In the movie, Dusty is a very popular and accomplished musician yet there is emptiness in his heart. It shows the stereotype that celebrities do not find fulfillment in fame and money. It clearly portrays the sad realities which are not captured by the limelight. In the present world, the life of celebrities has been exposed giving the audience a glimpse of what really happens in the life of showbiz personalities. The emergence of this stereotypical depiction of a celebrities' life is the product of the realities in show business. Britney Spears sings it clearly "She's so lucky, she's a star but she cry, cry, cries in her lonely heart thinking, if there's nothing missing in her life then why do these tears come at night." This stereotype portrayed in the movie bridges the gap between audience and celebrities by stressing that fame does not bring the complete happiness that an individual desires. In a positive way, it enables audience to appreciate the things that they have like family and loved ones instead of aspiring to be admired by fans. The stereotypes explored above are being taken advantage by business organizations to profit in their operations. Country music artists are to depict a stereotypical hillbilly-big beard and long hair. On the other hand, some companies stress the beauty of being a simple individual with family than someone who is rich and famous. An example of another movie with this theme is Family Man which starred Nicholas Cage and Tea Leonie. Stereotypes often hinder society from seeing what is really there, but this

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Citibank's E-Business Strategy for Global Corporate Banking Case Study

Citibank's E-Business Strategy for Global Corporate Banking - Case Study Example The present research has identified that technology has brought enormous changes to the business practices. Talking about businesses, technology is not restricted to any one kind of business. With the changing technology it has become an essential part of the business practices to adapt accordingly. Changes in technology have been followed globally and by every business sector. One of the most important technologies that have caused the most powerful impact on the businesses is â€Å"Internet†. It has revolutionized the ways of doing business. The most enticing change that it has brought by the â€Å"Internet† is â€Å"E-Commerce†. Firms and industries have shifted towards E-commerce. Many firms have used this technology to set their competitive advantage. Use of internet for conducting business has helped in globalization. It has changed the dimensions of competition throughout the world. Use of internet has transformed the firms’ relationships with the c ustomers, employees, suppliers and other logistic partners. E-commerce is basically the use of internet technology to buy and sell goods. E-commerce has led to the emergence of new markets. It has led to the reduction in costs. Many firms that were unable to adapt the concept of using E-commerce have suffered. As mentioned before, E-commerce is not restricted to any one business sector. Banking is one sector that has faced a huge impact of E-commerce on its business practices; to such an extent that E-commerce has now become directly linked with the profitability (BECKER, S. A. 2008; MEHTA, V., SUDAN, A. S., & DAWRA, S. 2003; MALHOTRA.P &SINGH.B. 2009) Use of internet has changed the customer needs and expectations. It has also influenced the strategic decision-making of the firms. Banking sector had to come up ways in order to successfully adapt to this new technology. They needed a way to translate their traditional strengths into an internet-based business model so it could add m ore value for the customers. Use of internet has changed the infrastructure for the delivering of goods. Is has increased the time-span for the customers. Now they can connect with the bank at anytime and anywhere. This means that there has been an increase in the banking hours and customers can avail the banking facilities at anytime; especially the transaction facilities. Use of internet to facilitate the routine business practices has led to an immense increase in competition between the firms. Even the use of internet has to be done in a differentiated way. This is exactly how the Citibank incorporated this revolutionary technology into its business model. It not only proved to be successful but set an example for all the other firms that are present within the banking sector (BECKER, S. A. 2008; ENGLER, H., & ESSINGER, J. 2000; UNITED NATIONS. 1998) Point of Differentiation At the end of 1990, Citibank made a change to its corporate bank activities. It changed its corporate bus iness strategy form decentralized to centralized strategy. The bank aimed to build a single

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The Evolution of a Fairy Tale Essay Example for Free

The Evolution of a Fairy Tale Essay In the universe of fairy tales, the Just often find a way to prevail, and the Wicked generally receive their comeuppance. But a closer look at the stories reveals much more than a simple formula. Behind the seemingly innocent tales of old lie undeniable truths about women—how they were treated in society, and how they wanted to break free from the mold their surroundings had built around them. To fully understand this, I will be examining â€Å"fairy tales† where women were not weak and vapid, where they became the heroes, and where a reversal of roles that was ahead of its time, arose. But first, a brief look at its history. The Origin of Fairy Tales Once Upon a Time, fairy tales werent written for children. According to Bob Huang’s essay, in spite of their name, the popular fairy tales usually have very little to do with fairies. We took the name from the French contes des fee, and the French literary fairy tales of the 17th century do feature far more fairies than the tales which are best-known today. The Grimm brothers collected the folk tales of the German people to make up their volume, but fairy tales are more than just folk tales. The German term for them is Marchen, a word for which there is no satisfactory English equivalent it is the diminutive of Mar, a story or a tale, and has come to mean a story of wonder and enchantment, as the fairy tale is. Although large numbers of literary fairy tales were written in 17th century France, most of the tales which are still told and retold now are far older in origin. Many of the stories were edited and changed as they were written down, removing the darker and more gruesome elements of the stories. The intended audience of the stories has also changed. Perraults collection of tales was written to be presented at the court of Versailles, and each tale ended with a moralistic verse. At the same time, literary fairy tales of great imagination and invention, often quite cruel and gruesome, were being created by the women surreptitiously rebelling against the constraints placed on them by their restrictive society. They were not written for children. Today, when asked to name authors of fairy tales, most people now (if they knew at all) would answer the Grimm Brothers or Charles Perrault, and perhaps Hans Christian Andersen. Yet throughout history, fairy tales have been womens stories, passed down orally by the mothers and grandmothers. When the tales began to be a literary form, the number and output of female authors vastly exceeds that of the males. The Grimm Brothers collected their tales from peasants and edited them to suit their audience; most of Perraults stories are retellings of old tales. Although the female authors included familiar elements, their now-forgotten tales were largely more inventive, original and fantastical than their male counterparts and frequently nastier, too. The Authors of the â€Å"Real† Fairy Tales In 1634, a cycle of fifty tales was published by Giambattista Basile, in which can be found some of the earliest written versions of familiar stories like Sleeping Beauty. Basiles tone is bawdy and comic; his narrators within the tale are old women, hags, crones and old gossips, the stereotypical tellers of the old wives tale. The women who brought the literary fairy tale to popularity fifty years or so later were anything but old wives. The story which marked the beginning of the form was written by the Countess dAulnoy, an aristocratic woman who tried to implicate her husband in a crime of high treason, but was discovered, and managed to flee Paris. She had been married to the husband at the age of 15; he was 30 years her senior, and a gambler and libertine. The cruelty of enforced marriages is remarked on by the heroines of many of her stories, and the tales of other women of the time. 0 years after fleeing Paris (she returned in 1685), Mme dAulnoy is thought to have assisted a friend to kill her husband, who had abused her. The friend was beheaded. The Countess de Murat was banished from Louis XIVs court in Paris for publishing a political satire about him; she then shocked the people of Loches, where she had her chateau, by holding gatherings where she and her friends would dance, talk, and tell fairy tales, as in the salons of Paris. Her tales concern marriage, the power struggles of the aristocracy, and true love. They do not always have a happy ending, either. Marie-Jeanne L Heritier led a less controversial life. She did not marry, choosing to dedicate herself to writing. Her father was a historian and writer, her sister was a poet. She was also the niece of Charles Perrault, and quite likely influenced his interested in fairy tales. Her Adventures of Finette features a heroine who wins by her wits, in spite of two lazy sisters and an evil prince. The Secret Messages In a time of political censorship, where women had few rights, fairy tales were one way that they could make their opinions known. The fairies themselves in the tales often stand for the aristocrats, having power over many but often caring little, bickering amongst themselves, concerned with their own power struggles. The heroines comment on the double-standards of the times, arranged marriages, and the false glory of war; the tales also illustrate the authors ideas on the standards of correct manners, justice and love. The tales were also written in opposition to the literary establishment at the time, which championed Classical literature as the standard for French writers to follow. Fairy tales were modeled on French folklore and the courtly love of medieval literature. When Perrault joined them in writing fairy tales, he was taking a stand for the modern style and for womens tales (although his tales did not exactly feature liberates females). The Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns was part of the society which the fairy tales rebelled against for most women there was no choice over which side to take, as they werent thought worth educating in Latin and Greek anyway. Instead of being forced out, they formed their own style. A Fresh Look at the tale Donkeyskin (Feminism at work) We begin with a dying queen, a king who is described as being the most powerful monarch in the world, and their daughter. In the queens final conversation with her spouse, she extracts a promise that should he wed again, he will marry no woman who does not fulfill a particular condition: to match her in beauty, to fit her wedding ring, to have hair of a hue as golden as her own, and so forth—conditions differing from culture to culture. The king remains single for a number of years, unable to meet the conditions of his promise to his wife. At least not until their only daughter matures. It becomes apparent that she, and she alone, fulfills the necessary conditions, and he resolves to marry her, much to the horror of kingdom and princess alike. Seeking to evade her fate, the princess follows her mothers example by attempting to set an impossible condition to prevent, or at least delay, the impending union (in some versions, through her own wiles; in others, through the advice of a substitute mother figure such as a fairy godmother; and sometimes, though more rarely than is common in other tales such as Cinderella or The Goose Girl, through the direct advice of her dead mothers spirit). Typically, she asks her father for a dress as shining as the sun, a dress as lucent as the moon, and a coat made from the skin of either a single precious animal, or from skins representative of all of the animals in the woods. In some variants, the princess asks directly for the source of her fathers wealth, such as the skin of the donkey. Regardless, the father is so driven by his incestuous urges that impossible condition after impossible condition is met. It is interesting to note that in this particular story, the action which fits the mold of unassertive femininity starts the ball rolling, indirectly causing a series of harmful effects, while the more assertive, independent actions of the daughter are both required and rewarded. When her conditions are met, instead of choosing to follow her fathers path and acquiesce to immorality, our heroine chooses to take her fate into her own hands and flees, disguised by her coat of skin, her link to the natural world, carrying the precious dresses that represent her heritage and worldly position. Once this character is away from civilization, she finds herself at something of a loss. Her only advantage in her new environment is the cloak of skins, which she has finagled away from her father. The implications of this garment are interesting. First, there is the fact that it was created, whole cloth, from the harm that her father wished to do her and the manner in which she avoided that fate. As such, it can be described as being the product of courage and cunning. It is also a resource that allows her to tap into a deeper part of nature and thus succeed in her future attempts at happiness through craft and cunning. After a time spent wandering the forest, a place symbolic of change and transformation, the princess is discovered by a hunting party, and taken to a foreign court on the strength of her value as a curiosity. After spending some time persevering by dint of hard labor in the court kitchens, the princess develops a strategy. She determines to catch the interest of this kingdoms prince through traditionally feminine gifts. She uses her physical appearance, her cooking skills, and her general ability to maintain his continued interest and fascination. This threefold plan succeeds. Aside from the aforementioned aspects of feminism that the princess displayed: the independent streak, the stubbornness, the unwillingness to conform, there are also the symbols that the story made use of in terms of the other central characters. The King, for instance, whose incestuous intent, for its time (and now), extremely amoral, symbolized the power that men of that era had. It did not matter that the relationship was a no-no, nor the fact that his daughter did not want to go through with it. He wanted her as his wife, and he intended to have her—come what may. The century in which this story was written clearly had women and men in set roles. Men were the hunters, the leaders, and the autocracy. Do you not often wonder why quite a few of the mothers in tales we know, died to start the story off (Cinderella, Snow White)? It was as if the women during that time wanted to relay to the readers how hard life was for them that the maternal figures for the protagonists were dead to begin with. And then the authors branch off. We’ve established the role of the man as the â€Å"obey-me† figure, now there’s the fairy godmother who always rushes in to help. What this character clearly meant was the supposition of a female as a powerful figure; A magical creature who could do anything with a flick of her wand. The author clearly wanted to show that despite the antagonist’s presence, something could be done, and it would be a woman to do it. If you notice, a lot of other tales incorporate the â€Å"Fairy Godmother† figure (Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, Hansel and Gretel). Then there’s Prince Charming. He is the culmination of all the hardships that our heroine goes through. A rich, handsome, not-too-bright fellow who can’t seem to recognize the love of his life when in costume! Research has shown that women in the olden days did want rich husbands and a comfortable life. It was as if the Prince was their way of saying, â€Å"this is what I want, and what I deserve. Now, about our Donkeyskin heroine†¦her femininity did come back (the cooking, the vanity), but one could see all through to the end of the story, that she was willing to assert her authority, and not play second fiddle anymore. She ran away from her situation in the hope of finding a better one, and in the process, found she really needed (in her time, a husband seemed to fit the bill). Modern Feminist Fairy Tale Authors In our modern arts, as in ages past, women storytellers have understood this best. Margaret Atwood, Olga Broumas, Carol Ann Duffy, Denise Duhamel, Sandra Gilbert, Theodora Goss, Liz Lochead, Lisel Mueller, Lisa Russ Spar, Gwen Strauss, Jane Yolen, and many other contemporary feminist poets have used fairy tale themes to powerful effect to portray the truth of womens lives. (Anne Sextons collection Transformations, in particular, is an extraordinary work which no lover of fairy tales or womens writing should miss. ) Prose writers, too, have used fairy tales themes in a variety of interesting ways, exploring tradition stories from fresh, shrewd, modern perspectives. Some of their fairy tale novels and stories can be found on the mainstream fiction shelves, such as Angela Carter’s ground–breaking collection The Bloody Chamber, Margaret Atwoods The Robber Bride, Kate Bernheimers The Complete Tales of Ketzia Gold, Loranne Browns The Handless Maiden, A. S. Byatts Possession, Kathryn Daviss The Girl Who Trod on a Loaf, Berlie Dohertys The Vinegar Jar, Emma Donaghues Kissing the Witch, Alice Hoffmans The Blue Diary, Susanna Moores Sleeping Beauty, and Gioia Timpanelli’s Sometimes the Soul. Similarly enchanting works can be found tucked away on the fantasy shelves: Gwyneth Joness Seven Fairy Tales and a Fable, Peg Kerrs Wild Swans, Tanith Lees Red as Blood and White as Snow, Patricia McKillips Winter Rose, Robin McKinley Beauty and Deerskin, Rachel Pollacks Godmother Death, Delia Shermans Porcelain Dove, Sheri Teppers Beauty, Patricia C. Wredes Snow White and Rose Red, Jane Yolens Briar Rose, and the stories in the Snow White, Blood Red anthology series, to name just a few. Still more can be found on the Young Adult fiction shelves, including Francesca Lia Block’s The Beast and the Rose, Shannon Hales The Goose Girl, Sophie Massons Serafin, Edith Patous East, Ursula Synges Swans Wing, and the many fairy tale novels of Donna Jo Napoli. In The Feminine in Fairy Tales, a collection of her lectures at the Jung Institute in Zurich, Von Franz discusses themes in The Girl With No Hands, equating the heroines flight into the wilderness with the inner journeys we make into the unconscious and the lands of the soul. The forest [is] the place of unconventional inner life, she says, in the deepest sense of the word. It is there, in solitude, that the heroine can look deep inside herself and find the space, time, and clarity to heal, symbolized by the restoration of her hands at the end of the tale. Gertrude Mueller–Nelson builds on these ideas in her book Here All Dwell Free: Stories to Heal the Wounded Feminine in which she uses two fairy tales — The Girl With No Hands and The Sleeping Beauty — to examine the ways the ‘Feminine’ is devalued in modern culture, and in men and womens lives. Conclusion Such tales were passed down through the generations by word of mouth, woman to woman, mother to child — using archetypes as a mirror held to daily life, particularly the lives of those without clear avenues of social power. Why do we continue to be ensnared by fairy tales, after all these centuries? Why do we continue to tell the same old tales, over and over again? Because we all have encountered wicked wolves, faced trial by fire, and found fairy godmothers. We have all set off into unknown woods at one point in life or another. Women had found their voices through the â€Å"tales† and were set free.